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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2020
Volume 5 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-47

Online since Monday, June 29, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Forensic pediatric dentistry p. 1
TN Uma Maheswari, Meenakshi Krishnan
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_13_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Gender determination using odontometric diagonal measurements of teeth: An analytical study p. 3
Ramhari Shankarrao Sathawane, Gunjan Vinod Moon, Rakhi Manoj Chandak, Ashish Babanrao Lanjekar, Runal Prakash Bansod, Vidyarjan Ashok Sukhdeve
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_1_20  
Background: Gender determination is one of the prime parameters in forensic identification. The feasibility of the nonreactive, mineralized part of teeth to resist mutilation and to survive deliberate, accidental, or natural change has led forensic experts to focus on the teeth as a possible source as forensic data in cases of fragmentary and mutilated human remains. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine gender using odontometric diagonal measurements of permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth. Objectives: To measure and evaluate sexual dimorphism by odontometric diagonal measurement of teeth. Materials and Methods: The study sample included a total of 80 maxillary and mandibular dental casts obtained by alginate impression from 40 participants (20 males and 20 females) in the age range of 19–35 years selected from the Central Indian population. Mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL) and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML) measurements of the right permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth excluding third molars were taken separately. All the measurements were taken using a Digital Vernier Caliper. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. Results: It is found that the diagonal measurements are significantly greater in males than females. The highest percentage of overall accuracy rate of maxillary MBDL is followed by maxillary DBML, mandibular MBDL, and mandibular DBML. All the values of the mean tooth dimension of MBDL were greater than DBML. The overall accuracy rate of maxillary MBDL is 97.2% and mandibular MBDL is 95.2%. The overall accuracy rate of maxillary DBML is 96.56% and mandibular DBML is 94.21%. Conclusion: Diagonal measurements of teeth can be used for sex determination. The most significant variable is found to be MBDL measurements of maxillary and mandibular second premolars. It is the strongest predictor for gender determination.
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Comparative reliability of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy in human identification and sex determination: Among Kerala population p. 11
Anjana Ashok, Nirupa Thomas
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_6_20  
Background: The present study was carried out on 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) among Kerala population (Central Kerala) aged between 18 and 50 years. Aims and Objectives: To identify palatal rugae pattern and lip print pattern and to compare the rugae and lip print pattern between males and females. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed the lip print and palatal rugae pattern in males and females using a classification given by Suzuki and Lysell respectively. Results: Lip prints and rugae pattern are distinct for an individual, the most common type of pattern in male was Type IV. The most common type of pattern in female was Type I. No statistical significant difference was observed in the length and number of rugae between males and females. The present study showed that forwardly placed rugae was more in males than females. The present study successfully established the individuality of the rugae patterns, length, and number . Conclusion: Chelioscopy is useful in identifying the gender of the person by studying the pattern left at the crime scene and palatoscopy can be useful in personal identification.
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Sex determination by maxillary sinus dimensions using cone-beam computed tomography and discriminant function: An analytical study p. 19
S Ramhari Sathawane, A Vidyarjan Sukhadeve, M Rakhi Chandak, Ashish B Lanjekar, Gunjan V Moon
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_8_20  
Background: Sex determination of unknown persons plays an important role in forensic medicine. Zygomatic bone and maxilla remain intact although the skull and other bones may be badly disfigured in victims who are incinerated. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an excellent radiographic modality for accurate measurement of the maxillary sinus (MS) dimensions. Aim: To determine sex by MS measurements using CBCT scans and discriminant function. Objectives: To measure and compare the MS dimensions in males and females. Materials and Methods: Sixty CBCT scans showing bilateral MSs of 30 males and 30 females were retrieved and evaluated. The parameters such as width, length, and height were measured and recorded. The data were analyzed using unpaired t-test and discriminant function analysis to assess sexual dimorphism. Results: Statistically significant differences are observed between males and females in respect to the MS height and length on both the right and left MSs, whereas statistically significant difference is observed in respect to width only on the right MS. The accuracy rate of sex determination was 73% in males and 69% in females, with overall accuracy of 71%. The most pronounced parameter in differentiation of sex is the MS height. The discriminant equations are derived for both right and left MSs. Conclusion: MS dimensions can be used as an aid in forensic anthropology for the determination of sex. MS height is found to be the most predictive parameter in sex determination. The prediction from the derived discriminant equations is found accurate ≥80% for both sexes and both right and left MSs.
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Characteristic features and terminologies of mammalian dentition – A conspectus p. 23
Sanpreet Singh Sachdev, Zaneta Ivy D'Souza, Tabita Joy Chettiankandy, Manisha Ahire Sardar, Vivek Pakhmode, Trisha D'Souza
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_9_20  
Introduction: Forensic odontology is a relatively recent branch of dentistry that bridges our field with the practice of law. Its scope is not only limited to human dentition but also may extend to involve other animals as well. The present literature with regard to animal dentition is relatively primitive and scattered due to which many forensic odontologists are not familiarized with this vastly unexplored field. In this context, we have attempted to provide a concise overview of various characteristics and terminologies of animal dentition, which could empower dental researchers to further investigate the subject meticulously. Materials and Methods: Skull specimens of various orders of mammals were observed for various characteristics such as morphologic features of arches, traits of the dentition, and their spatial relation to each other. Various measurements were obtained using Digital Vernier Calipers and digital photographs of the specimen to illustrate the characteristic features that were captured. Results: The characteristic features of dentition have been collectively described in the text according to the taxonomic orders to which the specimens belong to. Various terminologies relating to these features have been specified as well. Conclusion: With equipment of basic but essential knowledge pertaining to characteristics and terminologies of various orders of mammals, dental researchers can gain a better understanding of the adaptive and evolutionary changes in animal and human dentition, enabling them to further explore this aspect of forensic odontology with greater confidence.
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Reliability of enamel shade as a method of chronological age estimation: A study in North Gujarat population p. 30
Avani Patel, MD Shylaja Attur, Reena Chaudhary, Jayadeva Hallur, Anil Patel, Pavan Kumar Gujjar
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_10_20  
Background of the Study: Dental hard tissues are highly resistant to degradation and putrefaction. Enamel shade, which usually ranges from light yellow to gray white, is of great significance because of its translucency. The shade of enamel is found to be associated with the chronological age. This may also be influenced by various environmental factors, diet, habits, deficiency states, fluoride level, etc., It also depends on the color of dentine. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the relation between enamel shade and chronological age. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty patients were included and divided into various age groups. The enamel color was evaluated using a VITA classical shade guide. Results: The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12, and highly significant results were obtained. The accuracy of age determination was found to be 73.7%. Conclusion: Enamel shade can be considered as an adjunct in age range estimation of an individual.
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Pilot study – To investigate the frequency of patient identity validation when first registering with a UK dental practice p. 33
Adrian Harry Blake
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_14_20  
Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the frequency of identity validation for patients, when they first register with a dental practice. Methods: The pilot study reviewed responses made by 16 dental practices in the South West of England to the question, “When a new patient first registers with your practice, is any proof of identity required before they are able to book an appointment and see a clinician?” Results: All 16 of the dental practices surveyed reported not asking new patients for any form of formal identification. Conclusion: With none of the practices surveyed asking for the proof of identity when new patients enroll at the practice, there does therefore, appear to be a disparity between the legal weight that dental records hold in the process of identification of human remains, relative to the level of proof of identity from which the former is taken.
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Medical child abuse and altered parenting recognition in the dental clinic p. 35
Emilio Nuzzolese, Francesco Lupariello, Ivana Čucović-Bagić
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_4_20  
Introduction: During their routine work, dentists and dental hygienists can observe areas such as face, neck, and arms, where in ≥50% of cases one can diagnose signs of physical abuse due to nonaccidental traumas. Methods: Oral health professionals are in a position to recognize not only the signs of possible physical and sexual abuse but also signs of dental neglect. The hypothesis also regards the opportunity to intercept signs of medical child abuse (MCA) and altered parenting care and supervision. These are parental or caregiver behaviors that more specically relate to so-called altered/distorted or unnecessary care, which is equally harmful or potentially harmful for the child. Discussion: All health-care professionals (family doctors, gynecologists, pediatricians, and dentists) play a key role in protecting children and adolescent health and must be able to recognize possible victims of maltreatment. Conclusion: To widen the protection of a child and prevent child abuse and neglect, the dental team should also be knowledgeable about MCA recognition during the routine clinical work.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Human identification and human rights through humanitarian forensic odontology p. 38
Emilio Nuzzolese, Francesco Lupariello, Pietrantonio Ricci
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_5_20  
The ethical relationship between human identification and dead bodies lies in the question of whether the dead, like living individuals, have human rights. Only a name and an identity will allow their religious beliefs to be respected and allow the next of kin to complete the grieving process. Experts in forensic odontology and disaster-victim identification have intimate material contact with bones, teeth, jaws, and other tissue of the deceased, but their work can also lead to the best practice in human identification from humanitarian forensic odontology (HFO) perspective. HFO is the application of pro bono services and consultations in that forensic casework where dental evidence is involved and forensic odontology could be pivotal in criminal investigations, especially in the field of human identification. For this reason, the inclusion of forensic odontology in the human identification process must be methodological, becoming a proper specialization of dentistry and forensic sciences. The dead have the right to have a name and an identity. In the authors' opinion, the failure to perform a dental autopsy for the purpose of human identification of unidentified human remains can be considered a violation of the human rights of the dead.
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DNA in forensic odontology: New phase in dental analysis p. 43
Reena B Chaudhary, MD Shylaja, Avani Patel, Anil Patel
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_12_20  
In forensic identification cases, where human remains are extremely damaged or degraded by mass disaster, teeth and bones are often the only available sources of DNA. Nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA are the most frequently investigated types of DNA in teeth. There are various techniques including decontaminations, sampling methods, and DNA extraction methods by polymerase chain reaction. DNA content of teeth varies considerably between individual and also between teeth from the same individual. Tooth type, chronological age and dental diseases affect the DNA content of teeth. Teeth are the preferred skeletal source of DNA because they can be retrieved from human skeletal remains even after very long years after death. The comprehensive understanding of tooth structure and composition, as well as process of diagenesis in teeth, is crucial for determining the location of DNA in postmortem teeth. Targeted subsampling and careful case selection of appropriate decontamination and extraction protocols will further increase the value of teeth as a source of DNA. This method can be applied in mass disaster where the fragments of the tooth are available for disaster victim identification.
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