|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 2-8
Comparative evaluation of vertical crown length of deciduous and permanent teeth as a predictor of an individual height by linear stepwise regression analysis
Ramanna Chandrappa1, VV Kamath1, N Srikanth2, C Sharada3
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dr. Syamala Reddy Dental College, Hospital and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||26-Apr-2017|
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dr. Syamala Reddy Dental College, Hospital and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Establishing the identity of an individual by analyzing the teeth has being a matter of interest in forensic odontology. Dental morphometrics is useful in establishing physical profile of the individual at various stages in forensic studies. Tooth dimensions of both deciduous and permanent teeth can be correlated to various aspects of the facial and physical characteristics of an individual.
Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between clinical crown length (CL) of erupted deciduous and permanent teeth and the height of child and adult, respectively. An association between these two parameters, if any, was evaluated to derive a numerical equation that would predict the individual's height from tooth dimensions.
Materials and Methods: Sixty adults (30 males and 30 females) of age range 18–26 years and sixty children (30 males and 30 females) of age range 3–6 years were included in this study. Clinical CL of the permanent teeth (tooth numbers 11, 12, 13, 16, 17) and deciduous teeth (tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, 55) was measured on the subject cast models using digital Vernier calipers. Using a standard measuring tape, individual height (H) was also measured. Ratios (CL/H) of permanent tooth CL to individual height and deciduous tooth CL to the child height were documented. Using linear stepwise forward regression analysis, the probability of CL of the study group teeth that would most likely predict physical height of the child and adult was determined.
Results: Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between the two parameters among children and adults. In permanent dentition, tooth CL of #12 permanent upper right lateral incisor (among the combined group of males and females) was statistically significant in the prediction of the adult height. Mathematically derived equation for adult height prediction using #12 CL based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis (derived from combined data of male and female samples) is 941.286 + 82.146 (#12 CL); in deciduous dentition, (#55) upper right second molar among the males, (#52) upper right lateral incisor among females, and (#53) upper right canine among the combined male and female group were statistically significant and predicted the child height with minimal variations. Equations derived for male child height prediction (using data of male children) is 660.290 + 72.970 × (#55CL), for female child height prediction (using data of female children) is − 187.942 + 194.818 × (#52 CL), and for child height prediction using #53 CL (using combined data of male and female children) is 400.558 + 90.264 × (#53 CL).
Conclusion: There exists a definitive relation between vertical CL of teeth and the height of an individual. This relation is more predictive with teeth numbers 12 in adults and 52, 53, 55 in children. This information is of immense value in identification profiling in forensics.
Keywords: Clinical crown length, deciduous teeth, forensic odontology, individual height, permanent teeth
|How to cite this article:|
Chandrappa R, Kamath V V, Srikanth N, Sharada C. Comparative evaluation of vertical crown length of deciduous and permanent teeth as a predictor of an individual height by linear stepwise regression analysis. Int J Forensic Odontol 2017;2:2-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Chandrappa R, Kamath V V, Srikanth N, Sharada C. Comparative evaluation of vertical crown length of deciduous and permanent teeth as a predictor of an individual height by linear stepwise regression analysis. Int J Forensic Odontol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Jan 19];2:2-8. Available from: https://www.ijofo.org/text.asp?2017/2/1/2/205252
| Introduction|| |
Estimation of stature or physical height is one of the important aspects in anthropological protocol and very essential in initial screening and individual identification from skeletal remains. And here, teeth can be considered as an exceptional resource material for forensic investigations because of its high resistance capacity to withstand high temperatures in disasters during natural or artificial calamities. Hence, teeth play a vital role in individual identification for medicolegal circumstances and unknown identification from skeletal remains during mass causalities.,
Dental morphometrics helps in the quantitative analysis of form of the tooth that includes both size and shape of teeth. Estimation of physical profile using dental morphometrics is a subject of great significance in forensic studies.
Previous studies have been attempted in physical height prediction using dentition and by correlation of different dimensions of the tooth and body dimensions. A varied conclusion has being drawn in all these studies.
Raghavendra et al. in their study on the comparative evaluation of permanent maxillary central incisor crown length (CL) with facial height and body height of 100 subjects concluded that there is no statistical correlation present between these parameters. Jayawardena et al. conducted a study in Sri Lankan Sinhalese subjects to determine relationship between tooth length of permanent maxillary central and lateral incisors with the stature and concluded that tooth morphometrics does not determine body height of the subjects. Sterrett et al. in their study among Caucasians, width, length, and width/length ratios of maxillary anterior sextant permanent dentition to the height of the individual could not find any statistically significant correlation between tooth dimensions and subject height. However, Prabhu et al. in contrary to the above studies observed a small statistically significant correlation to the body height during evaluation of multiple dimensional parameters of the maxillary central incisor tooth.
A literature review surprisingly reveals no studies on the determination of physical height using CL using both deciduous and permanent dentition. The present study is designed to identify the relationship between the two parameters by measuring the erupted deciduous and permanent vertical CL and height of child and adult. Linear stepwise forward regression analysis is used to derive a mathematical equation to predict the subject height from tooth CL.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The protocol of this study was approved by the Local Institutional Ethics Research Committee. One hundred and twenty subjects were selected for this study; sixty children (30 males and 30 females) in the age group 3–6 years and sixty adults (30 males and 30 females) in the age group of 18–26 years. The age range was selected based on the evidence of minimal disruption to tooth morphology due to oral excursions, for example, attrition.
The inclusion criteria for children and adult sample selection are as follows:
- Presence of healthy teeth, gingiva, and periodontium
- Presence of fully erupted deciduous dentition (51, 52, 53, 54, 55) and permanent dentition (11, 12, 13, 16, 17)
- Presence of normal overjet and overbite
- Presence of normal molar and canine relationship
- Absence of interdental spacing or crowding between teeth.
The exclusion criteria for children and adult sample selection
- Presence of mobile deciduous and permanent teeth
- Incomplete eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth
- Presence of any dental irregularities
- Physical alterations of tooth structure due to caries or restorations, fracture, attrition.
Informed consent from adults and parents of children was obtained for the study, and the basic measurements such as age, height and erupted tooth CL were obtained. A standard measuring tape was used in height (H) determination of the subject (H was converted into mm while recording). With the help of standardized digital Vernier calipers (Aerospace Ltd., Bengaluru), clinical vertical CL was measured on cast models of the dentition prepared using irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) material and dental stone. The clinical vertical CL was recorded in millimeters and entered into MS EXCEL sheet. Ratios of CL/H in adults and children were determined.
T-test independent was used to compare the ratios of CL/H among children and adults.
Linear stepwise forward regression analysis was used to determine the statistically significant teeth whose CL was most likely to be predictive of the individuals' height. A mathematical equation for each tooth that would assist in determining the probable physical height from tooth CL was also arrived at. This equation was randomly tested on the various subjects and verification derived.
| Results|| |
The following results are obtained from the correlation of data recordings.
General characteristics: Height (H)
Adults: The mean height of the adults among females is 1550.72 mm with a standard deviation of 173.95 and among males is 1741.72 mm with a standard deviation 81.80. The average height is more among males than in females.
Children: The mean height of the child among females is 972.65 mm with a standard deviation of 158.49 and among males is 1086.41 mm with a standard deviation 106.27. The average height is more among males than in females.
Crown lengths of the sample
Adults: The mean CL of tooth numbers 11, 12, 13, 16, 17 among males was 10.64 mm, 8.89 mm, 10.16 mm, 7.21 mm, 6.62 mm and among females was 10.11 mm, 8.27 mm, 9.34 mm, 7.02 mm, 6.34 mm, respectively. The mean CL of all the selected teeth in this study among males was more compared to females.
Children: The mean CL of tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 among males was 6.72 mm, 6.05 mm, 7.09 mm, 6.07 mm, 5.84 mm and among females was 6.59 mm, 5.96 mm, 6.87 mm, 5.90 mm, 5.75 mm, respectively. The mean CL of all the selected teeth in this study among males was more compared to females [Table 1].
|Table 1: Mean height and crown length of male and female adults and children|
Click here to view
Crown length/height results
Adults: CL/H ratios of the #11CL/H, #16CL/H, and #17CL/H were found to be statistically significant at P < 0.1 levels [Graph 1].
Children: CL/H ratios of the all the five group of teeth #51CL/H, #52CL/H, #53CL/H, #54CL/H, and #55CL/H were found to be statistically significant at P < 0.1 levels [Table 2] and Graph 2].
|Table 2: Differences in male and female height, crown length/height ratios between adults and children|
Click here to view
Statistically significant teeth
A linear stepwise forward regression analysis identifies the following teeth to be statistically significant and forms the strong basis for mathematical equation derivation that assists in predicting the individual's height using the tooth vertical CL.
Adults: Among five groups of teeth (#s 11, 12, 13, 16, 17) evaluated in the study, #12 among the combined group (male + female data) was found to be statistically significant from the analysis with standard error of estimate 194.71 [Table 3]a and [Table 3]b.
The remaining set of teeth: Teeth numbers 11, 13, 16, 17 were found to be statistically nonsignificant [Table 4].
|Table 4: Statistically insignificant group of teeth among adults and children - excluded variables table|
Click here to view
Children: Among five groups of teeth (#s 51, 52, 53, 54, 55) evaluated in the study, #s 52, 53, 55 were statistically significant from the analysis [Table 3]a.
- Maxillary right canine (#53) among the combined data (male + female tooth measurements) with standard error of estimate of 135.91
- Maxillary right lateral incisor (#52) among female tooth measurements with standard error of estimate of 136.0062055
- Maxillary right second molar (#55) among male tooth measurements with standard error of estimate of 100.7729203.
The following sets of teeth: #s 51, 52, 54, 55 (in combined data); #s 51, 52, 53, 54 (in male data); and #s 51, 53, 54, 55 (in female data) were statistically nonsignificant [Table 4].
Mathematical equations for height determination derived from statistically significant teeth crown length
Adults: Equation derived from combined (males + females) data for adult height prediction using #12 CL is:
Adult height = 941.28 + 82.14 × (#12 CL)
Children: Equation derived from male data for male child height prediction using #55 CL is:
Male child height = 660.290 + 72.970 × (#55 CL)
Equation derived from female data for female child height prediction using #52 CL is:
Female child height = −187.942 + 194.818 × (#52CL)
Equation derived from combined (males + females) data for child height prediction using #53 CL is:
Child height = 400.558 + 90.264 × (#53 CL).
| Discussion|| |
In previous anthropological studies, tooth CL has being used to determine the total body length with varying results. Wood  in his study on the primate taxa of Homo, Gorilla, Pan, Colobus, and Papio studied the variations between tooth size and body size. In this study, allometric coefficients in each variable between the taxa were different, and hence, results obtained between the nonhuman taxa samples were different from the human taxa. Hence, there were no specific correlations derived between tooth size and body size. Shimada  in her study analyzed the relationship of tooth crown height and body length of great white sharks and proposed the existence of linear relationship between the two parameters. The linear relationship derived was given as: Total length (in centimeters) = a + bx (where a - constant; b - slope of the line; x - CL of the labial surface of the tooth). This linear relationship later became a regular formula for anthropologists and paleontologists in measuring body length of sharks. However, the relevance of this linear relationship to human height determination is yet to be established.
Previously, no studies have been attempted in height estimation using CLs in deciduous and permanent dentition. In the present study, there exists a predictive correlation between the clinical CL of erupted teeth and height of the subject. This relationship also varies between the two sets of dentition.
Based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis: (a) In permanent dentition tooth, # 12, i.e., permanent upper right lateral incisor, among the combined group of males and females was statistically significant in the prediction of the adult height. (b) In deciduous dentition tooth, # 53, i.e. maxillary right canine among the combined data (male + female measurements), #52, i.e., maxillary right lateral incisor, among female measurements, and #55, i.e., maxillary right second molar among male measurements, are statistically significant in the prediction of the child height.
Mathematical equation derivation for height prediction using CLs as an example is shown in [Table 5]a and [Table 5]b. Here, height of the adult is equal to (unstandardized coefficient of constant of combined data) 941.286 plus (unstandardized coefficient of #12 CL) 82.146 multiplied by CL of upper right lateral incisor (#12 CL) and is based on combined (male + female) data.
Similarly, height of the female child is equal to −187.942 (unstandardized coefficient of constant) plus 194.818 (unstandardized coefficients of #52 CL) multiplied by the CL of upper right lateral incisor (#52 CL) and is based on female data.
Interestingly, height prediction equations from our study have similarities to Shimada's study of linear relationship of tooth crown height and body length in sharks; i.e., total length in centimeters = a + bx (where a - constant; b - slope of the line; x - CL of the labial surface of the tooth). Here, “a” constant resembles nonstandardized coefficient of constant, and “b” constant resembles nonstandardized coefficient of CL multiplied by mean CL of the tooth. An important observation to be noted from the analysis is that the constants derived from a sample size will fluctuate between different sample sizes in different studies.
Similar equations can be obtained for all the teeth separately for combined group, male group, female group using deciduous and permanent dentition by following the above example and using the constants derived from linear stepwise forward regression analysis. Here, the height prediction equations derived of statistically significant teeth give a more approximate prediction with less error than the nonsignificant teeth. The three groups of data (combined, male, female) are used separately during different situations such as male data equation derived would be used in male height prediction, female data equation derived would be used in female height prediction, and combined group data equation derived would be used when the sex of the individual is unknown.
The findings of the present study are significant in many aspects. The establishment of a definitive relation between tooth CL and individual height has been statistically justified. The predictive relation between the two parameters has been created and mathematically explained. This adds a new dimension in the creation or establishing the profile of a missing individual from tooth data. The obvious advantages of the tooth structure in cases of environmental disasters as a forensic tool can hardly be understated and the availability of the additional parameter of height determination strengthens the armamentarium of the forensic odontologist. The standardized tooth CLs to height ratios would also help assess the growth and development of an individual.
| Conclusion|| |
Considering the statistically significant correlation between the tooth CLs and individual height, an application of this concept to all the deciduous and permanent dentition in all the quadrants in a larger population, using different races over different geographical area, better significant results can be obtained minimizing the errors in the final results.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Vodanović M, Brkic H. Dental profiling in forensic sciences. Rad Croatian academy of sciences and arts. Med Sci 2012;514:153-62.
Stavrianos C, Kokkas A, Andreopoulos E, Eliades A. Application of forensic dentistry: Part-I. Res J Med Sci 2010;4:179-86.
Raghavendra N, Somayaji NR, Kamath VV. The correlation between permanent maxillary central incisor crown length, facial height and body height and weight. An allometric analysis of 100 individuals. Res Rev: J Dent Sci 2014;2:127-31.
Jayawardena CK, Abesundara AP, Nanayakkara DC, Chandrasekara MS. Age-related changes in crown and root length in Sri Lankan Sinhalese. J Oral Sci 2009;51:587-92.
Sterrett JD, Oliver T, Robinson F, Fortson W, Knaak B, Russell CM. Width/length ratios of normal clinical crowns of the maxillary anterior dentition in man. J Clin Periodontol 1999;26:153-7.
Prabhu S, Acharya AB, Muddapur MV. Are teeth useful in estimating stature? J Forensic Leg Med 2013;20:460-4.
Wood BA. An analysis of tooth and body size relationship in five primate taxa. Folia Primatol (Basel) 1979;31:187-211.
Shimada K. The relationship between the tooth size and total body length in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias
). J Fossil Res (Jpn) 2002;35:28-33.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]