• Users Online: 211
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-85

Online since Wednesday, June 30, 2021

Accessed 5,963 times.

PDF access policy
Journal allows immediate open access to content in HTML + PDF
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
RSS FeedRSS
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list
EDITORIAL  

Forensic odontology-renowned cases solved p. 1
TN Uma Maheswari, Manjari Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_12_21  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Visual inspection of standard photographs taken from skull and mandible to set anthropological profile: A pilot study p. 3
Paula Barreto Costa, Luciana Vigorito Magalhães, Juliane Bustamante Sá dos Santos, Marco Aurélio Guimarães, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_16_20  
Background: Despite the effectiveness and accuracy of the primary methods of human identification based on comparison between post- and antemortem information, in cases where there is no possibility of confrontation due to the absence of antemortem data, auxiliary methods can establish a profile of the victim and direct a search that may culminate in identification. Forensic anthropology is the field that can assist in human identification cases through the analysis of bone remains, which can collaborate in the definition of a possible profile of the victim, called an anthropological profile. Aim: Analyze the applicability of the visual inspection of standard photographs of the skull and mandible for sex, age, and ancestry. Materials and Methods: Ten skulls and their respective jaws were photographed, and a file with all the photographs was made available by an online platform to a group of ten criminal experts (specialized in forensic odontology) who filled a form with information about sex, ancestry, and age. Results: Were obtained percentages of correctness and error of 67.86% and 32.14%, respectively, for sex determination, 88.57% and 11.43% for age estimation, and 63.57% and 27.86% for ancestry, with 8.57% of responses left blank in the last one. Conclusion: Visual inspection of the standard photographs of the skull and mandible for the establishment of anthropological profile presented limited findings, and need to be carefully analyzed and applicable only if the direct examination is not possible..
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Assessment of human orbital index and mandible in gender determination: An institutional-based retrospective cone-beam computed tomographic study p. 8
K Saraswathi Gopal, N Nagammai, BG Harsha Vardhan
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_19_20  
Background and Aim: Gender determination of bone is a very important part of study in anthropology and forensic science. This osteometric study helps in establishing the process of evolution, race, and demographic profile. If gender is determined first, then further investigations such as estimation of both age and stature can be confirmed with ease. Thus, the present study aims to assess the reliability of human orbital index (OI) and mandible in gender determination using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 CBCT images obtained using Planmeca Proma × 3D Mid Pro Face machine, taken for the purpose of various dental treatments for the patients with the age group of 10–60 years. Various parameters such as OI (maximum vertical distance of the orbital cavity/maximum horizontal distance of orbital cavity × 100) and in mandible (gonial angle and intercondylar distance) were measured using Romexis software. Results: OI showed an increase with age up to 40 years and then there was a decline with further increase in age. Gonial angle – the mean range of gonial angle values was recorded for females is 119.56–129.08 and for males 112.33–123.68 and also shows positive correlation being observed between gonial angle and age in both the sexes. Intercondylar increases with increase in age and did not exhibits much of difference between the males and females and furthermore between both the sides. Conclusion: Identification of gender from available skeletal remains is of great medicolegal significance. Thus, the present study will clearly express if morphometric analysis of orbit and mandible will be one of the reliable parameters for gender determination.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Predictive accuracy of mandibular ramus flexure as a morphologic indicator for gender determination: A radiographic study p. 13
Asma Maniyar, Prashant Patil, Vajendra Joshi, KR Kiran Kumar, RT Shilpa
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_21_20  
Introduction: In forensic medicine, the identification of age and gender is an initial step and it plays a vital role in determining one's identity. The skeletal components most often investigated for gender determination are pelvis and skull, with the mandible being a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in the fragmented bones. Mandibular ramus can be used to differentiate between sexes and it also expresses strong univariate sexual dimorphism. Aim: Determination of gender by using mandibular ramus posterior flexure. Materials and Methods: A radiographic retrospective study was conducted on 25 male and 25 female Orthopantomographs taken in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Strict exclusion criteria were applied in selecting images. The images were taken using digital panoramic x-ray machine ORTHOPHOS – XG5-Sirona Dental System, Germany (68kvp, 8ma, 14.1 s). To process the images and mark, the location for analysis SIDEXES software was used. Each image was examined for the presence of a flexure on the posterior border of the ramus, which was carefully delineated and the occlusal plane marked, guided by the height of cusp tips of the mandibular molars. Results: In the present study, we observed the overall accuracy using mandibular ramus posterior flexure was 64% in the determination of gender with P = 0.0032. The predictive accuracy was higher for females compared to males. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus flexure can be considered as supplementary rather than definitive mean of sex determination. Hence, it is better to include as many parameters as possible for attaining the accuracy.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Dental and medical college professionals compatibility to face medico-legal practice: An awareness cross-sectional study at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh p. 17
Kriti Garg, Rohan Sachdev
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_22_20  
Context: Medicine is a noble profession, but the practice of medicine has been influenced by the transition in the relationship between doctor and patient and the advertising of the modern healthcare professional. The basic principles of medicine insist that doctors should be aware of the numerous medico-legal concerns that aid in documenting patient management information properly. Aims: The aim is to evaluate the knowledge and awareness on medico-legal Issues among Medical and Dental College Health Professionals of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among health professionals. Subjects and Methods: A total of 316 health professionals (161 medical and 155 dental) participated in the study. A structured, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used to compare the awareness of medico-legal issues between medical and dental health professionals Results: Among the 316 health professionals, 90.9% of medical and 99.3% of dental professionals were aware about the informed consent, 18.6% of medical and 10.3% of dental professionals had awareness about the Consumer Protection Act and only 18.6% of medical and 9.6% of dental professionals had attended any CDE/CME program regarding Medico-legal issues. Conclusions: The results revealed that there was little knowledge of medico-legal concerns among the participants. There is therefore an immediate need to update the understanding of these issues to be legally more secure.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Frontal sinus dimensions: An aid in gender determination in adult Nigerians p. 22
Beryl Shitandi Ominde, Patrick S Igbigbi
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_4_21  
Background: The morphometry of the frontal sinus (FS) is important in the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and follow-up of sinus pathology. It is also reliable in the forensic identification of skeletonized, charred, and dismembered human remains. This study aimed at determining the morphometry of the FS in adult Nigerians. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study used computed tomography images of 292 adult patients aged ≥20 years and archived in the radiology department of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Following ethical approval, the dimensions of the FS were measured. The axial and coronal sections were used to measure the thickness of the anterior and posterior walls, the width, depth, the distance between the most lateral points of the FS, height, and distance between the highest points of the FS bilaterally. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 23. Paired t-test and independent t-test were used to evaluate for the side and gender differences in the morphometric parameters, respectively. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The thickness of the anterior and posterior walls, depth, width, height, the distance between the most lateral points, the distance between the highest points of the FS, and volume showed a statistically significant gender difference (P =0.001). The dimensions of the FS showed statistically significant side differences (P =0.001). Conclusion: The FS morphometric parameters showed sexual dimorphism and can be used for sex determination of unknown human remains in forensic investigations.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Age estimation using mandibular ramus and gonial angle using digital orthopantamogram p. 27
Mounika Kathoju, Venkateswara Rao Guttikonda
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_5_21  
Introduction: Forensic age estimation of unidentified skeletons and corpses for the purpose of identification has been a conventional feature of forensic science. Age determination is of paramount importance in medicolegal issues. Mandible is a dimorphic bone of the skull which aids in determining the age of an individual. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of various mandibular ramus linear measurements (condylar ramus height and coronoid ramus height) and gonial angle measurements on digital panoramic images on the right side of the mandible for age determination. Materials and Methods: Three hundred panoramic images were selected randomly and mandibular ramus linear measurements (condylar ramus height and coronoid ramus height) and gonial angle measurements were performed on the right side, tabulated, and evaluated statistically. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the three parameters on the right side of the mandible were analyzed. No statistical significance was observed between the chronological age and estimated age using the above three parameters on the right side. However, the coronoid ramus height showed a statistically significant result between the chronological age and the estimated age (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In the present study among the three mandibular parameters, coronoid ramus height proved to be a valuable indicator for age estimation.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Forensic odontology – Are the dentists really aware p. 32
Nidhi Sinha, Meghanand T Nayak, Geetanshu Dawar, Sharad Srivastava, Neeti Swarup, Shreya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_6_21  
Introduction: Dentistry has much to propose to law enforcement agencies in the detection and solution of the crime. The use of teeth is the most common retractile action of self-defense against any personal attack. Hence, it is the call of the hour for dental practitioners to obligate sound knowledge about forensic odontology and its judicial applications. It is the responsibility of each and every dentist to maintain dental records for identification in the event of child and adult abuse, and mass disasters. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to analyze and assess the awareness about forensic odontology among practicing dentists in Moradabad. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 dental surgeons of Moradabad and data were collected via means of questionnaires. Result: The overall result revealed inadequate knowledge about forensic odontology among the practitioners. Conclusion: The experts in different fields of dentistry have scarce or no idea regarding the contribution of their specialization in the field of forensic dentistry. This calls for greater knowledge and awareness among the practitioners and experts to necessitated the same.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

A comparative study analyzing the size of mental foramen in Male, Female, and transgender using cone-beam computed tomography p. 38
Poorvi Yadav, Nyamati B Sanjay, Shweta Hegde, Salona Kalra
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_7_21  
Background: Mental foramen (MF) is the anatomical landmark which is oval in shape and present in mandible and shows sexual dimorphism by variation in size and position. The aim of this study was to analyze the size of MF in male, female, and transgender using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and also emphasize on specifically conducting such study on transgenders. Materials and Methods: Axial, coronal, tangential sections of 150 participants (50 males, 50 females, and 50 transgenders) and CBCT mandibular scans aged 25–50 years were prospectively evaluated to determine the size of MF. Differentiating characteristics of genders were evaluated. Results: Transgenders had significantly greater axial and tangential width measurements than males and females. Transgenders had significantly greater coronal height and tangential height measurements than males and females. Mean width of MF 5.91 ± 0.14 (axial), 6.23 ± 0.19 (tangential), mean height of MF 6.83 ± 0.31 (coronal), and 6.74 ± 0.32 (tangential) were observed. Conclusion: It could be concluded that gender identification by MF can be more reliable as it is a stable landmark and shows sexual dimorphism. The present study observed the significant difference in size of the MF in male, female, and transgender.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Comparative reliability of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy in identification and gender determination among 5–14-year-old children: An In vivo study p. 43
Subhathira Rajasekaran, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_13_21  
Background and Aim: The study of lip prints and palatal rugae patterns is considered to be distinct to every individual and consequently holds the potential for identification. Thus, the aim of this study is to ascertain the use of lip prints and palatal rugae pattern in identification and gender determination among 5–14-year-old children. Methods: A total of 92 children, 46 males and 46 females, were selected from the Outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore. Thomas and Kotze classification were used to analyze the dental casts to study palatal rugae patterns. Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification was used to analyze lip prints recorded using butter paper. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test was used for estimating the total number of rugae and number of primary rugae. Chi-square test was used for determining the predominant shape, direction, and unification in palatal rugae and for the association of lip prints with gender determination in all the quadrants. Results: Type 1, 1', and 2 were observed in females more, whereas Type 3 and 4 were observed in males. The predominant shape of the rugae was wavy and curved among males and females. The incidence of forwardly directed and backwardly directed rugae was more in males and perpendicularly directed rugae were more in females. Conclusions: The present study proves that both cheiloscopy and palatoscopy have the potential to identify an individual; however, lip prints are said to be more reliable in identifying the sex of an individual as compared to palatal rugae patterns.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Isolation of DNA from human teeth exposed to different decalcifying solutions for forensic identification: A study p. 51
Shoborose Tantray, Nazima Nasrullah
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_14_21  
Background: Teeth are selected as source of DNA material mainly due to the high durability found in its structures (enamel, cementum, and dentin), which often succeeds in preserving the integrity of genetic material. Attempts of perpetrators of crime in the destruction of evidence including dead bodies are on the rise. Hence, the use of advanced techniques such as DNA analysis in such a scenario has been the choice. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction and amplification of DNA from human teeth exposed to different chemicals Nitric Acid at 25%, Formaldehyde at 25 %, and Acetic Acid at 25 %. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the intactness of DNA using polymerase chain reaction. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was performed with a sample of 15 subjects who underwent tooth extraction from which 5 samples of oral mucosal cells were taken as controls (reference population). The experimental population was divided into three equal parts, which were exposed to different chemical solutions, namely Nitric Acid 25 %, Formaldehyde at 25 %, and Acetic Acid at 25 % compared with the control group (oral mucosal cells [5 samples]). The silica method was used for the extraction of DNA from teeth and the organic method was used for the extraction of DNA from oral mucosa cells. Results: Estimation of DNA quantity and size distribution was done on an Agrose Gel Electrophorosis. From our study we could observe that the teeth that were immersed in 25% Formaldehyde & 25% Acetic Acid were having intact DNA, which we were able to isolate & amplify. There was degradation of DNA tooth which were immersed in 25% Nitric Acid, thus the identification & amplification was not possible. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that DNA extraction may be limited under exposure to chemical solutions or bodies that undergo intentional postmortem alterations, such as carbonization and dissolution, hamper the degradation of DNA due to high temperature and acid pH. Therefore, testing the collection of DNA from the human teeth in such conditions could contribute significantly to the field of forensic genetics.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

A retrospective study of sexual dimorphism based on frontal sinus assessment p. 56
Sheetal Sharma, Jigna S Shah
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_15_21  
Purpose: Person recognition via radiographs has always been a fertile ground for deciphering skeletal developmental patterns and yielding promising results. This study was performed to evaluate the uniqueness and reliability of the frontal sinus by comparing various parameters on the digital posteroanterior skull radiographs for sex identification. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised digital posteroanterior radiographs and frontal sinus was analyzed for morphometric parameters by Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 extended in 30 subjects (15 males and 15 females) aged between 18 and 40 years. The comparison of values was done and accuracy of sex determination was assessed. Results: Statistically significant difference was found. The mean values for length, width, and area of the left frontal sinus were found to be higher in males as compared to females. Conclusion: The frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination as it is unique to every individual and ultimately this can aid in human identification. Posterioanterior skull radiographs have proven to be a potential valid tool for individual identification.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Comparative assessment of lip print and tongue print in gender determination: A cross-sectional study p. 60
M Sudhaa Mani, Yasmeen Ahamed, Pavithra Dhandapani, G Sivaraman, P Ambiga, N Balan
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_16_21  
Introduction: In the recent times, anthropological traits such as lip prints and tongue prints are being acknowledged as a great fortune in gender determination. Not only the traits are unique, but also they can be acquired and secured from person through least invasive and cost-effective techniques. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the predominant type of lip print and tongue print and to correlate the lip print with tongue print in identification of gender. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out with fifty individuals (25 males and 25 females) who were reporting to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. For each individual, lip prints were recorded using a dark-colored lipstick and analyzed according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification, and the tongue impression was recorded by making alginate impression and being preserved using the alginate molding. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Type 3 pattern in males and Type 1 pattern in females were the predominant lip patterns. In tongue, the physiological texture, pentagonal shape, scrotal tongue in 8% and blunt apex were the predominant features in males whereas ovoid shape with sharp lingual apex were seen predominantly in females. A statistically significant correlation was found between the lip print and tongue print with P < 0.05. Conclusion: The lingual impression may constitute precise methods for forensic dentistry identification in addition to lip print.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Diagnostic radiographs used in dentistry and forensic dentistry: A cross-sectional survey p. 65
V Jayavabushana, Abirami Arthanari, S Kesava Priya
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_17_21  
Introduction: Radiographs are images produced on the sensitive plate or on the film by X-rays, gamma rays, or similar radiation and are used for medical and dental examination, especially in forensic dentistry. Forensic radiography is the process of taking radiographs. Radiographs can be classified as intraoral radiographs and extraoral radiographs. Radiation from dental X-rays contains only about 2.5% of the radiation dose that received from other medical radiographs. Many teeth, gingival, and periodontal diseases are undetectable with the naked eye, including bone loss, bone infections, tumors, abscess, cyst, granulation, and decay under a filling. X-ray makes it possible to find out problems early; therefore, treatment can start or done earlier to assure the dental health. Quick treatment helps in preventing the complications. X-rays are extremely important for detecting the extent of the caries and in third molar development. X-rays allow the dentist to track the healing progress and find any problems under the mucous surface. Aim: The aim of the study was to create awareness about the radiographs used in dentistry and forensic dentistry and to make mindfulness and teach professionals about the radiographs used in dentistry and forensic dentistry. Materials and Methods: The method involved in this study was an online survey of questionnaires, which involves assessing the awareness and knowledge on radiographs used in dentistry and forensic dentistry. Approval from the institutional ethical committee and informed consent from the participants were obtained. The total number of participants was 100. The data collected was exported to Google sheet and were analyzed by using the software SPSS version 23. Results and Discussion: Among the undergraduate students, 27.27% of the students answered that cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was the radiograph used to detect fracture, 24.55% of the students answered intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA), 8.18% of the population answered orthopantomogram (OPG) and 10% of the postgraduate students answered that OPG was the radiograph used to take mandibular fractures. Among the undergraduate students, 10.91% of the students answered that CBCT was the radiograph used to detect cyst, 9.09%% of the students answered IOPA, 27.27% of the population answered CT, 42.73% of the population answered OPG, and 10% of the postgraduate students answered that OPG was the radiograph used to detect cyst. Among the undergraduate students, 38.18% of the students answered that CBCT was the radiograph used to detect the impacted tooth, 25.45%% of the students answered IOPA, 13.64% of the population answered CT, 12.73% of the population answered OPG, and 10% of the postgraduate students answered that IOPA was the radiograph used to detect impacted tooth. Conclusion: From the above survey, it is concluded that undergraduate students have less awareness about radiographs used in forensic dentistry than postgraduate students. Furthermore, studies will improve their awareness and knowledge of radiographs used in forensic dentistry.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Age estimation methods used in dentistry - A survey among dental students p. 72
S Kesava Priya, Abirami Athanari, V Jaya Vabushana
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_18_21  
Introduction: Age estimation is an important factor in biological identification in forensic science. It assists in narrowing the search possibilities for unidentified deceased or living individuals for legal purposes. Teeth are the strongest structures in the human body and are protected by the soft and hard tissues. Thus, the dental structures are highly resistant to external factors. There are three main types of age. They are physiological age, pathological age, and chronological age. This research is needed to improve the knowledge on age estimation methods used in dentistry. This research also fulfills the deficiency of work on knowledge about age estimation methods. Aim: This study aims to create awareness about the age estimation methods used in dentistry and to make mindfulness about the age estimation methods used in dentistry. Materials and Methods: The method involved in this study was an online survey of questionnaires, which involves assessing the awareness and knowledge on radiographs used in dentistry. Approval from the institutional ethical committee and informed consent from the participants were obtained. The total number of participants was 100. The data collected were exported to Google Sheets and were analyzed by using the software SPSS version 23. The P value is 0.00. Conclusion: Among the population, postgraduate students have higher awareness and knowledge than the undergraduate students.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Limitations of bitemarks as a conclusive evidence p. 78
Yasasvikumar Narendrabhai Vala, Divyesh Jagdishbhai Gopani, Yash Kishorbhai Babaria
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_26_20  
Bite marks identification can be used for comparison of a known person's dentition to a patterned injury, which appears consistent with Bite marks and Forensic odontologists examine, interpret, analyze, and prepare reports on Bite marks. Bite marks identification is facing lots of challenges nowadays because of many wrongful convictions and The National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community 2009 report concluded that “The bottom line is simple: In a number of forensic science disciplines, forensic science professionals have yet to establish either the validity of their approach or the accuracy of their conclusions.” Bite marks evidence is under scrutiny because of lack the scientific foundation, assertions on the uniqueness of Bite marks and lack of reliability and accuracy in Bite marks identification methods. Expert testimony based upon false claims lead to many wrongful convictions and courts also permitted the entry of potentially unsafe testimony. There is a failure on behalf of the courts to undertake any gatekeeping functions. This article explains many irregularities and limitations in Bite marks identification and it also explains the role of the court and expert testimony in many wrongful convictions.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Human identification through dental implants: A novel perspective p. 84
Deepak Gurung, Deepak Sharma, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Pravesh Jhingta
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_11_21  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta