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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2020
Volume 5 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 49-74

Online since Saturday, January 30, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Role of Forensic Odontologists during Pandemics p. 49
TN Uma Maheswari, Balasubramaniam Arthi
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_25_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Estimation and Determination of Stature and Gender of Adult Chhattisgarh Population using Digital Lateral Cephalograms p. 51
Pooja S Salkar, Avinash Eknath Thakare, Chinar Fating, Abhijit Deoghare, Tanvi Fuladi
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_11_20  
Context: Digital lateral cephalograms are crucial in ascertaining stature and gender which lead to a clue for establishing identity as they are cost-effective, are easily available, and have reliable accuracy. Aims: The present study has an objective to determine gender and stature among 1000 adult Chhattisgarh males and females in the age range of 21–50 years using 14 linear lateral cephalometric measurements. The study attempted to derive a prediction equation for stature using lateral cephalometric parameters. Settings and Design: An observational, cross-sectional study was planned for stature and gender estimation using digital lateral cephalogram with study duration from July 2017 to August 2018. Methods: A total of 500 male and 500 female adult subjects in the age range of 21–50 years were subjected to digital lateral cephalogram, and 14 linear measurements were recorded for all subjects. Stature was measured using a stadiometer. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression analysis and correlation of lateral cephalometric parameters with stature were used for stature determination. Discriminant function analysis for gender prediction was used for ascertaining gender from lateral cephalometric parameters. Results: Of total 14 linear measurements, nine measurements among males and five among females were found to be positively and significantly correlated with stature. Correct gender determination was done in 83.5% of subjects using discriminant function analysis from lateral cephalometric measurements. Conclusions: Digital lateral cephalometric analysis can be used with fair accuracy for stature and gender prediction among adult Chhattisgarh population.
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To Investigate the Frequency of Patient Identity Validation when First Registering with a Dental Practice in the British Isles (UK) p. 58
Adrian Blake
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_18_20  
Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of patient identity validation when they first register with a dental practice in the British Isles. Methods: The study reviewed responses made by 123 dental practices across mainland UK, including the Highlands and Islands, comprising Northern Ireland, Scilly Isles, Isle of Man, Channel Isles, Western Isles, Shetland Isles, Hebrides, and the Orkney Isles, to the question, “When a new patient first registers with your practice, is any proof of identity required before they are able to book an appointment and see a clinician?” Results: In total, 1156 UK dental practices (approx. 9.62% of total number of UK dental practices) were polled, and of the 123 practices who responded to the questionnaire, 120 reported not asking new patients for any form of formal identification, and 3 practices (2.44% of the respondents) reported requesting formal photographic ID, before enrolling new patients. Conclusion: With only three of the practices out of 123 respondents surveyed asking for proof of identity when new patients enroll at that practice, there does appear to be a disparity between the legal weight that dental records hold in the process of identification of human remains, relative to the level of proof of identity from which the former is taken.
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Mastoid and Magnum – Hidden Key in Forensics – A Retrospective Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Study p. 62
Saraswathi K Gopal, S Sushmitha, Mahesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_20_20  
Introduction and Aim: The identification of skeletal remains and decomposing them is the most challenging skill in medicolegal investigations. Gender determination utilizing the skeletal remains has been of keen interest. This study aims to assess the role of the foramen magnum (FM) and mastoids in gender determination through osteometric analysis using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the osteometric measurements in relation to FM (shape, length, width, and area) and mastoid process (length, width, height, angle, area, and intermastoid distance) was assessed in 60 CBCT images in Planmeca ProMax three-dimensional midface machine using Romexis software, taken for the purpose of various dental treatments in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. Results: P < 0.005 was obtained through IBM SPSS software version 19 using t-test analysis. On analysis of the foramen magnum and mastoid process parameters for gender determination males had higher values than the females. The outcome of this study shows that the mastoid parameters can be more effective in determining the gender when compared to FM. Conclusion: Throughout history, dental forensics has played a major role in the identification of human remains. CBCT is gaining more popularity in the recent times over the other conventional radiographic techniques because of lesser radiation exposure, better accuracy thus it could widen the frontiers of forensics. With the emerging trends in forensics, this study will reveal the explicit aid of FM and the mastoid process using CBCT in forensic odontology.
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Macrophotography: An Innovative Technique to Study Morphological Variations of Lip Patterns p. 68
Dhruv Patel, Harsh Jadav, Gargie Rampurkar, Abraham Johnson
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_24_20  
Background: In the past, certain morphological traits of the human body such as fingerprints, footprints, iris, gait pattern, voice characteristics, and DNA fingerprinting, etc., have effectively been used in forensic circumstances as well as in the identification of perpetrators. As other features of the human body, the lip also exhibits some individualistic trait and is unique owing to variation in the anatomical structure. Aim: The aim of this study was to introduce a new approach for assessing lip patterns using macrophotography and for assessing the lip patterns for sex determination. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in a total of 200 participants (100 males and 100 females) between 20 and 30 years. The lip patterns of participants were studied under normal conditions using digital macrophotography. The classification scheme suggested by Suzuki and Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip patterns in the experiment. The lips of each person were divided into four compartments, and the digits “1” to “4” were allocated in a clockwise sequence beginning from the upper right side of the lips. Result: The most prominent pattern in the whole sample population was found to be Type I (84 [38.2% followed by Type III (72 [32.7%]), Type I (19 [8.6%]), Type II (11 [5.00%]), Type IV (7 [3.2%]), and Type V (7 [3.2%]). The statistical study of lip prints in relation to sex of an individual was conducted using the Chi-square test, and the value was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Cheiloscopy using a macrophotographic technique can be used for individual recognition as lip prints are unique to an individual. Macrophotographic technique allows properly imaging, quickly recognizing, and archiving the permanent ante-mortem record of the lip pattern.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Cheiloscopy: A Vital Tool in Forensic Investigation for Personal Identification in Living and Dead Individuals p. 71
Ambrish Kaushal, Mamta Pal
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_15_20  
Personal identification is a vital task in any crime scene investigation where there is a scarcity of biological evidences, and their chances of contamination and degradation are also high if they are not collected and preserved properly. However, cheiloscopy is one of the investigational techniques which rely on lip prints for human identification based on the anatomy and morphology of lips. Fischer in 1902 described the concept of grooves on upper and lower lips for the first time and later in 1932, it was recommended by Locard. Lip prints are considered very significant for personal identification and also prove to be an analogous to fingerprints. Moreover, lip prints do not change with time, therefore they could be useful for identification of a person, whether dead or alive. Due to the characteristic feature of uniformity throughout the life, these can be used to establish the presence or absence of a person in crime, provided that the person has left the lip marks on exhibits such as glasswares, clothing, tissues, and napkins. The scarcity of literature on cheiloscopic studies for personal identification shows that little research has been carried out so far within the forensic community. Previous cheiloscopic studies show that no study has been carried out to individualize a deceased person, which can be utilized in mass disasters apart from criminal cases. Therefore, the present review divulges the importance of cheiloscopy in the identification of living as well as deceased persons, which could be an innovative technique in the history of forensic science.
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