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   2017| January-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 26, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Racial characteristics of human teeth
Shivlal M Rawlani, Sudhir S Rawlani, Rahul R Bhowate, Rakhi M Chandak, Monika Khubchandani
January-June 2017, 2(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_21_16  
Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry which deals with the appropriate handling and examination of dental evidence which help in identification of person and presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice. It is concerned with the application of science and technology in human identification, requiring the coordinated efforts of a multidisciplinary team. Determining the racial affinity of an unknown individual from dentition for identification is indeed a difficult endeavor. However, there are some dental characteristics which are predominant in one of racial groups, and these contribute important indicators in the identification process. Forensic anthropologists most often provide details of bone studies, but forensic dentists can assist in the process. The determination of sex and ancestry can be accessed from shape and form of the skull, especially from skull appearance. Forensic dentists can determine race within the three major groups: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid. Additional characteristics of teeth, such as cusps of Carabelli, shovel-shaped incisors, and multicusped premolars, can also assist in the determination of ancestry.
  68,236 1,733 5
Truth from untruth: Dental pulp and its role in forensic odontology – a retrospective review
Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, Jaya Naidu, Raghunandan Bangalore Nagarajachar, Mahesh Batalahalli Sreenivas Reddy
January-June 2017, 2(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_23_16  
Forensic identification by its nature is a multi-disciplinary approach relying on positive identification methodology. This branch dealing with the identification of the deceased has many maxims, the best known of which, is that every contact leaves its trace. The identification of dental remains are of primary importance when the deceased person is skeletonized, decomposed, burned, or dismembered. A google literature search was done on various studies done using dental pulp in forensic odontology. Based on the available data, the details were analysed and reviewed. Pulp plays a pivital role in forensic odontology. Pulpal tissue can be used for molecular analysis to determine Age, Sex and Blood group antigen. Apart from these, the extracted DNA from Pulp can be used for Personal Identification. Odontoblasts present in pulp can be used to assess age as well as the days of death. To conclude Dental pulp has a high potential value in forensic odontology.
  6,548 983 1
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Teeth as a Source of DNA to identify mass disaster victims
Vagish Kumar L Shanbhag
January-June 2017, 2(1):43-44
DOI:10.4103/2542-5013.205250  
  6,001 660 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of vertical crown length of deciduous and permanent teeth as a predictor of an individual height by linear stepwise regression analysis
Ramanna Chandrappa, VV Kamath, N Srikanth, C Sharada
January-June 2017, 2(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_24_16  
Background: Establishing the identity of an individual by analyzing the teeth has being a matter of interest in forensic odontology. Dental morphometrics is useful in establishing physical profile of the individual at various stages in forensic studies. Tooth dimensions of both deciduous and permanent teeth can be correlated to various aspects of the facial and physical characteristics of an individual. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between clinical crown length (CL) of erupted deciduous and permanent teeth and the height of child and adult, respectively. An association between these two parameters, if any, was evaluated to derive a numerical equation that would predict the individual's height from tooth dimensions. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults (30 males and 30 females) of age range 18–26 years and sixty children (30 males and 30 females) of age range 3–6 years were included in this study. Clinical CL of the permanent teeth (tooth numbers 11, 12, 13, 16, 17) and deciduous teeth (tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, 55) was measured on the subject cast models using digital Vernier calipers. Using a standard measuring tape, individual height (H) was also measured. Ratios (CL/H) of permanent tooth CL to individual height and deciduous tooth CL to the child height were documented. Using linear stepwise forward regression analysis, the probability of CL of the study group teeth that would most likely predict physical height of the child and adult was determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between the two parameters among children and adults. In permanent dentition, tooth CL of #12 permanent upper right lateral incisor (among the combined group of males and females) was statistically significant in the prediction of the adult height. Mathematically derived equation for adult height prediction using #12 CL based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis (derived from combined data of male and female samples) is 941.286 + 82.146 (#12 CL); in deciduous dentition, (#55) upper right second molar among the males, (#52) upper right lateral incisor among females, and (#53) upper right canine among the combined male and female group were statistically significant and predicted the child height with minimal variations. Equations derived for male child height prediction (using data of male children) is 660.290 + 72.970 × (#55CL), for female child height prediction (using data of female children) is − 187.942 + 194.818 × (#52 CL), and for child height prediction using #53 CL (using combined data of male and female children) is 400.558 + 90.264 × (#53 CL). Conclusion: There exists a definitive relation between vertical CL of teeth and the height of an individual. This relation is more predictive with teeth numbers 12 in adults and 52, 53, 55 in children. This information is of immense value in identification profiling in forensics.
  4,506 517 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Postmortem identification in forensic odontology
Joshua Ng Chor Yang, James David Raj
January-June 2017, 2(1):27-29
DOI:10.4103/2542-5013.205247  
Forensic odontology is that part of dentistry which deals with the identification of a deceased individual by carefully examining and studying dental evidence. Over the years, many methods have been developed to identify the identity of a person. By studying the teeth and oral cavity, a forensic dentist can determine the age, gender, race and quite possible the identity of the individual. The key component in forensic sciences is to identify and compare a particular trait which is unique to that individual. In forensic odontology, a few traits have been identified such as bitemarks, enamel rod patterns, lip patterns, and genetic information embedded within the hard tissue of the tooth.
  4,384 612 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Experience of dental professionals in determination of gender by observing smile
Sourav Sen, Javeria Khan, Wajeeh Khan, Shravani Deolia, Rakashree Chakraborty Sen
January-June 2017, 2(1):18-21
DOI:10.4103/2542-5013.205248  
Introduction: Every individual in his or her entire life has a photograph of smile. This makes identification as well as dead bodies and remains possible with the help of forensic odontology and medicine. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to use only smile from photograph for gender identification by various experienced dental specialist. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a digital camera (Sony Cyber-shot DSC W800) was used to capture smile photographs, where participants were at a distance of 0.5 m from the lens and they were made to sit in a relax position with the Frankfort plane parallel to the floor. Among 50 captured photographs, 10 photographs were randomly selected, among which 5 males and 5 females, for pictorial questionnaire. Using Adobe Photoshop version 7.0, only teeth were made visible and other soft tissues were cropped so as not to make it a bias study. Results: All 5 dental colleges of Vidarbha region were included, in which 213 staff members participated in the study. Gender-wise distribution depicted 39.9% male and 60.10% female participants with no significance (P = 0.223). According to department-wise also was without any significance (P = 0.823). Now, according to designation wise, it was found that experience plays a vital role. Professor being the most experienced staff when compared with tutors (P = 0.03) and postgraduates (P = 0.015). Professors were most accurate in their opinions comparatively. Conclusion: This study concluded that identification of gender through only smile from photographs can be done with ease by professors due to their years of experience.
  4,255 575 -
Forensic odontology acquaintance among the students of a dental institution in Mysore City, India
Sushma Rudraswamy, Nagabhushana Doggalli, BR Chandrashekar, Maurya Manjunath, HS Sreeshyla
January-June 2017, 2(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_7_17  
Background: Forensic odontology utilizes the dentist's knowledge to serve the judicial system. It has itself as an important indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in personal identification, gender determination, and age estimation. It plays an important role in mass disasters, child abuse, bioterrorism, etc. Taken together, forensic dentistry has become one of valuable tools worldwide to be used in identification processes. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge about forensic odontology among the students of a dental institution. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among final year, interns, and postgraduate students of JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysuru. A self-administered, structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey was given to all available and willing student participants. Questionnaire included significance of dental records, dental age estimation, identification of child abuse and individuals bite marks, as a witness in the court, lip prints along with the demographic data. Results: In the present study, 67% of the participants responded that DNA comparison was the most accurate method for person identification. About 27.3% responded tooth dimension and tooth morphology was the most accurate method of dental age estimation in elderly. Moreover, 89.1% reported their present knowledge level/awareness about forensic dentistry was not adequate. Conclusion: Forensic odontology must be introduced into the BDS curriculum effectively as a separate subject so that the students get well acquainted with the required knowledge for handling the medicolegal cases in their future practice.
  3,943 447 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
A report on the current status of radiology in forensic odontology in the Indian Scenario
Selwin Gabriel Samuel, Astha Pandey, MS Dahiya
January-June 2017, 2(1):34-37
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_6_17  
Forensic odontology deals with various forensics aspects of matters pertaining to dental and perioral tissues. As radiology entered the medical and dental fields for various applications, forensic scientists embraced radiological principles for identification and investigative purposes. Radiographic investigation is a reliable and a standard means by which prime procedures such as age estimation, sex-determination, individual identification and ascertaining the cause of death can be carried out. Radiographic interpretation can be impeded by various factors out of which artifacts and digital image manipulation are not uncommon these days. Any such factor is unnecessary and in the field of forensics, it poses threat to proper delivery of justice. As radiographs are highly credited as sound evidences in court, all attempts should be made to produce ideal and authentic images. The advancements in radiology with pertinence to forensics are so enormous in the recent years. The authors of this paper discuss the recent advancements of forensic radiology in India and its various implications in relation to forensic odontology.
  3,898 448 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of different subtypes of type II lip prints among students of saveetha dental college
Meenakshi Mohan, TN Uma Maheswari
January-June 2017, 2(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_3_17  
Background: Cheiloscopy, the study of lip prints, is a forensic technique for personal identification. Uniqueness of lip prints such as fingerprints helps to detect the identity of an individual. Various studies about lip prints have been conducted. The present study was conducted to establish the prevalence of subtypes of Type II variety of lip print. Aim: The aim of the study is to find the prevalence and different types of Type II lip prints among 100 individuals from Saveetha Dental College. Objective: To assess the prevalence of Type II variety of lip print. To identify which subtype of Type II lip print is commonly seen. To find whether there is any significant difference in subtypes of Type II lip print between male and female and to evaluate the most common subtype of Type II lip print seen in each compartment of lips. Result: Type IIa is more common among both males and females, followed by Type IIb and then Type IIc . Conclusion: This study has defined the subvarieties of Type II lip prints that were not given by studies of Yasuo Tsuchihashi. Result: Type IIa is more common among both males and females, followed by Type IIb and then Type IIc . Conclusion: This study has defi ned the subvarieties of Type II lip prints that were not given by studies of Yasuo Tsuchihashi.
  3,718 437 -
EDITORIAL
Current demands of forensic odontology
TN Uma Maheswari
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2542-5013.205256  
  2,744 427 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Are teeth an adjunctive for age estimation in acid environment?
Prashant Kumar, Juveria Arshi, BNVS Satish, Maharudrappa Basnaker, Shrikala Puranik
January-June 2017, 2(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_1_17  
Background: Human identification in mass disasters, homicide, and acid attacks is possible because teeth are the only durable structures that remain. In chemical accidents such as acid attacks or uneventful accident in chemical industries, the acids mask the victim's identification when skeletal structures are destroyed and soft tissues cannot provide reliable information. Aims and Objectives: To observe the morphological changes of teeth exposed to acid environment and to aid in identification and age estimation of an individual. Materials and Methods: Sixty noncarious teeth were taken for the study. Ten teeth each were immersed in concentrated (Conc.) HCl, Conc. HNO3, Conc. H2SO4, aqua regia, Conc. acetic acid, and Conc. formic acid. Teeth were retrieved, washed in distilled water, dried, photographed, and radiographed at intervals of time and again placed in their corresponding acids. Age estimation was done using Kvaal method. Statistical Analysis: statistical analysis was done using Student's t-test. Results and Conclusion: The exact age of the victim is not possible in all cases. We can get an approximate age range with certain acids such as H2SO4, acetic acid, and formic acid, whereas with Conc. HCl, Conc. HNO3, and aqua regia, age estimation is possible for a certain period of time.
  2,816 335 -